A SUCCESSFUL CAMPAIGN OF CONQUEST IN YELLOW PINE.
persons are disposed to regard the manufacture of lumber as an
enterprise similar to those involved in the production of other
commodities. To the mind of the uninitiated all that is necessary is to
secure the umber, build a mill and set it in operation. To the practical
operator these are but steps, and not always the most difficult ones,
toward the goal. Cotton mills, iron foundries, furniture factories and
other similar institutions need only to provide facilities for turning
the raw material into the finished article of commerce. The managers of
such institutions need not give any thought to the raw supplies which
many stand ready to furnish f.o.b. the mill. The question of labor in so
far as the supply is concerned gives them little concern. They are not
required to house or to feed these employees nor to devise ways and
means of providing for their comfort. Their attention may be centered
solely in perfecting and carrying on the manufacturing operation per se.
individual or concern contemplating engaging in the lumber
manufacturing business is confronted by vastly different conditions.
Such operators are brought face to face with all the problems of modern
commerce; it might almost be said with all the problems of modern life.
The first step to be taken by the prospective manufacturer of lumber is
to secure the timber. Then a survey of the holdings is made and a
suitable location for the plant and town is selected. It is necessary to
bear in mind not only the topography of the timber land so as to make
the mill operation as convenient as possible but the suitability of the
site for the homes of several hundred or several thousand people must
also be taken into consideration.
After these questions are
satisfactorily disposed of plans must be formulated and contracts let
for the construction of a mill. At the same time work is begun on the
logging road, the main lines of which must be laid out with a view of
securing the best returns for the least expenditure of labor and motive
power. It is necessary to plan all these matters in advance so that the
labor will not be multiplied and that the timber on the land may be
harvested at the lowest possible cost. With the mill constructed and the
logging road under way the next work is to plan and build the town.
Stores, dwellings, offices and other necessary facilities must be
provided. The manufacturer of lumber is not a manufacturer only. He is a
railroad builder and operator; a storekeeper, and the ruler of an
estate equal in area and complexity of difficulties encountered to many
In a well ordered manufacturing plant everything seems
to run itself. Some phases of the work appear to be conducted in a
haphazard, go-as-you-please manner, yet underneath it all are the plans
and purposes of the builder, and if the plans are wise and the purpose
firm the result is for the benefit of many people. But if the plans are
faulty and the purpose weak the result is inevitable failure.
This week the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN is pleased to give publicity to an illustrated story of a successful yellow pine manufacturing institution. Those who follow closely the history of the wonderful progress made by those in charge of the Southern Pine Lumber Company will find briefly outlined the results secured by a
concern whose head has had the ability to formulate and carry out its
plans. They will find that the lumber manufacturing process involves the
construction and operation of a railroad, the building of school houses
and churches, the establishment of mammoth manufacturing plants,
electric light service, waterworks and many other of the so called
modern conveniences. In small towns and cities the men who put in
electric light plants or waterworks, who build churches and schools, are
looked upon as having created something. In this great operation,
however, as in others, such work is merely incidental to the great
problem of gathering together the people and facilities to produce
Through the instrumentality of the camera the reader is
carried around the town, the yards and mills, along the railroad and out
into the timber of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, and from different angles of vision is shown the
property in the various phases of the work as it is being conducted.
With written words he is made acquainted with the gradual building up of
this vast institution and given a concrete idea of what its operation
In justification of those who prepared the article it
should be understood that they too followed out the various incidents of
the development, comprehending the plans and purposes of the directors
and recognizing the importance of each department of the work. They too
mentally built the railroad, the mill and the village and, furthermore,
reversing progress, they carried the work back to the point where the
first tree was felled and still further back to the time when the
cruisers ranged over the land estimating the value of its standing
timber—back to the undisturbed forest primeval.
While the Southern Pine Lumber Company is notable for the vast progress it has made it also is
notable for another accomplishment rare in lumber circles. It is called
the Southern Pine Lumber Company and yet it is one of the few pine manufacturing institutions which have successfully engaged in the
manufacture of hardwood lumber at the same time. It produces not only
yellow pine in all its multiplicity of grades
and sizes but also high grade hardwoods which throughout the south are
found mixed in with the pine to a greater or
less degree. This fact alone makes the institution an extraordinary one,
but there are other features of its growth and progress which must
compel the attention if not the admiration of those who this week are
given opportunity to acquaint themselves with its history.
OPPORTUNITIES OF THE PRESENT IN MAKING PLANS FOR THE FUTURE.
magnificent illustrated descriptive article which appears in this issue
of the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN has already received review elsewhere in the
editorial pages, but the fact that after serious consideration the
present time should have been deliberately chosen for the publication of
such an article appears to be worthy of special comment.
well understood that the lumber trade, as regards both manufacturers and
the lumber retailing and consuming sections of the industry, is
experiencing a breathing spell such as it has not been able to indulge
in for the last few bustling years, even during the comparative quietude
of the winter season. But, while at this time the volume of active
transactions is small, it by no means follows that the individual
lumbermen have gone into a state of hibernation; on the contrary, most
of them are busy summing up the results of their labors and studying
them with a view to securing even better results, if possible, for the
future. The annual season of stock inventories and balance sheets has to
do, not primarily with the past but with the future. No man by taking
thought of these matters can in any way change the results of the past.
All he can do is to note its successes and failures in order that in the
future he may copy after and improve upon the one and as far as may be
possible avoid the other. It is probable that more attention is being
given to this matter at present than has been in any other January in
several years, and that such leisure time as may be afforded under
present conditions is largely being profitably utilized in keen thought
and study in planning for the future.
The retail lumber yard
managers of the country, like the other individual factors of the trade,
are therefore in a particularly receptive mood for any suggestions
which may be for their future trade benefit, and while they may not be
actively placing lumber orders in large volume they are largely
formulating policies which will guide them in their future lumber
purchasing and selling activities. They are overhauling their stocks and
deciding what items it may be profitable to add and what items it may
perhaps be desirable to carry henceforth in smaller or larger supply.
They are studying the columns of the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN weekly with more
care in order to secure valuable trade suggestions which in a more busy
season might escape their notice on account of other demands upon their
It is probable, therefore, that in view of all these
considerations the pages of pictures and text which appear in this issue
of the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN will receive more careful and interested
attention and by a much larger number of the readers of the AMERICAN
LUMBERMAN than might perhaps have been the case at any other time when
they might have been presented to their attention.
IN THE FIRST PLACE.
the first place, Mr. Reader, you have made a very great mistake in your
original idea that this is another one of those illustrative
exploitations, just like So-and-So's, or just like Somebody's else, for
this article which follows is just about as different in its details and
its generalities from the average descriptive article of similar
character as one similar thing can be from another that it in any way
About this the writer can give abundant advice and
considerable exact information, because as a matter of fact the Word
Carpenter and the picture making Architect plaster up the holes in the
cornerstone of each of these edifices of Art and Investigation the very
last thing they do. The roof has been put on long ago, the studdings and
rafters and floors and window openings and interior furnishings of this
House of Description have all been put in place, and. even the gilded
weather vane has been turning gently in the winter winds a considerable
length of time before this cornerstone of an introduction even began to
be chipped from the mental quarry.
The introduction, in other
words, is the very last thing done, so you see the writer is competent
to give the reader advice as to what is to follow.
The story of the evolution of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, which is now in the fourteenth year of its history,
might be called "The Different Story''- if it were desired to epitomize a
This whole affair will be a surprise to 90 percent of not only the retailers but the wholesale trade in yellow pine lumber; quite as much of a surprise as it was to the photographic and
writing men who have sojourned for some weeks in the counties of
Angelina, Houston, Trinity, Cherokee and Anderson, Texas, accumulating
the pictures and the information for the purpose of erecting this
somewhat extensive edifice of paper and printer's ink.
You all know of the Southern Pine Lumber Company in a general way, but it has proceeded with its
evolution with such rapid steps, has come up from the low ground to the
high lands in commercial endeavor so swiftly, and yet with such certain
growth, that to hundreds of its contemporaries and to thousands of its
friends this story which follows will seem almost fabulous.
At Diboll has been accomplished the successful manufacture of yellow pine and hardwood lumber on one and the same saw mill, and that alone ought
to be enough inducement to any one who has read thus far to complete the
reading of the story.
These is no desire to thunder in the index
and play pianissimo in the paragraphs, but it is desired that the many
readers of the AMERICAN LUMBERMAN be given some knowledge in this brief
introduction of what they may expect to find in the story.
is no desire, however, to tell it all in the headlines, but if you wish
to learn bow a great business has been evolved from nothing to millions
in fourteen years' time, and to know how a little desk room in Texarkana
has in that time grown into a Yellow Pine Barony in Texas, take the writer's word for it and read on to the end.
will be seen by the brief biographical sketch of T. L. L. Temple, the
founder of Diboll, which will follow this division of this article, the
history of the Southern Pine Lumber Company has been largely the history of one man in an endeavor
to build up an honest, unpretentious but paying business in the
manufacture and distribution of yellow pine lumber.
theory of evolution has never been carried to greater fruition in
commercial affairs in this country than in the rise and progress of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, so will be shown how every department of this business
has begun at the small and grown to the large. Each section of the story
will be a series of steps upward.
Each year the Southern Pine Lumber Company has found itself on the firing line considerably
advanced as to location as compared with the firing line of the previous
The Southern Pine Lumber Company of Texas was organized in 1893 with an authorized
capital stock of $50,000, of which less than $25,000 was paid up. It was
reorganized in June, 1902, with an authorized capital stock of
$300,000. In July, 1906, the capital stock was increased to $600,000. In
June, 1907, it was increased to $750,000.
As a Lumber Selling Proposition.
The Southern Pine Lumber Company as a lumber selling proposition, or a wholesale concern,
had existed previous to 1893 at Texarkana, Ark., and it was in those
previous years that this company learned the business art of marketing
yellow pine lumber. It has had for a decade and a half a prowess in that line head and shoulders over any other yellow pine distributing concern in its particular locality. It has more than any other lumber concern handling yellow pine a right to lay claim to the first use of the word "Southern" in its business name.
Back in 1888, 1889 and 1890 the Southern Pine Lumber Company—the partnership—meant only a little square of office
space in a long room on the ground floor of an office building opposite
the Benefield hotel in Texarkana, Tex. The first Southern Pine Lumber Company partnership consisted of T. L. L. Temple, C. M. Putnam and Ben Whitaker.
Temple soon became the sole owner of the business and the office was
removed to the Arkansas side of Texarkana, to the second floor of the
office building then located, as is the present building, on the corner
of Broad street and State Line avenue.
When a new building was erected on the same spot in 1905 the Southern Pine Lumber Company leased practically the whole south front of the second
floor of the edifice, where today is still carried on the selling end of
The Beginning of Manufacture.
The Southern Pine Lumber Company bought from J. C. Diboll, in Angelina county, 7,000
acres of timber land in 1893. This first purchase was bought on a
stumpage basis at 75 cents a thousand, and then and there it became the
cornerstone of the subject of this illustrated article.
company was allowed a reasonable time in which to cut this timber,
having been compelled to remove only about 800,000 feet a month, log
measure, the time for removal to begin after it had erected a mill.
town of Diboll was located and laid out by Mr. Temple at a point on the
Houston, East & West Texas railway 107 miles north of Houston and
128 miles south of Shreveport, this town having been located at a
convenient spot in the first purchase of 7,000 acres of stumpage.
company put in a single circular mill of 50,000 feet daily capacity,
which was run until it became necessary to build the present "No. 1
mill" in 1903.
The first mill began running in June, 1894. In
1897 —early in the year—the next notable purchase of timber was made,
also in Angelina county, consisting of 8,000 acres.
The second mill referred to began running in June, 1903, and is a double band affair.
In 1898 the Southern Pine Lumber Company had already bought of W. N. Atwood a narrow gage
railroad six or seven miles in length, which then became the basis for
the general traffic lines known as the Texas Southeastern railroad,
which, being a collateral matter, is described elsewhere in this article
under a separate head.
Thirteen Years of Active Life.
All of the advance that the Southern Pine Lumber Company has made in its thirteen years of active life has been
built around the principle of "Buy timber, buy timber, buy timber."
the inception of the company no year has passed in which it has not
purchased more timber than it has cut, as evidenced by the facts
outlined in the story of the timber.
The company has always
employed skilled men to do this branch of the work, and attributes much
of its success—in fact, the main portion of its success—to this policy.
THE MAIN VERTEBRAE.
building that remains level has a solid foundation; every circumference
has a center; every human or animal central vertebrae; every machine
floor a central line shaft; every corporation of importance, however
impersonal may be its parts, some one man who not only stands nominally
at its head but is actually its chief factor. Although no man
appreciates or acknowledges the intelligent work of his lieutenants more
substantially than does T. L. L. Temple, president of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, he is nevertheless the central figure in its growth and
evolution and the one person above all others who has been at all times
in the watch tower, scanning the field with trained eye in preparation
for all exigencies that might arise that might stunt the growth, or on
the other hand might assist the growth, of this concern.
By Ancestry a Huguenot.
Lewis Latane Temple, of Texarkana, Ark., was born in Essex county,
Virginia, and is of Huguenot ancestry. He left Virginia in 1876 and took
up his residence in Arkansas.
His first Arkansas experience was
farming, but it was not to his fancy. For a time he was deputy-clerk of
Little River county and circuit courts. In 1887 he became a bookkeeper
in Texarkana, where he found employment in that capacity for various
firms until 1881. In that year Mr. Temple became interested in a little
saw mill at Wayne, Tex. This was his first saw mill experience.
1887 Mr. Temple became a member of the Atlanta Lumber Mills Company, of
Atlanta, Tex., and after that, in 1891, he organized the Southern Pine Lumber Company, a partnership referred to more explicitly in the department of history in this article.
Distinctively a Lumberman.
Temple is distinctively a lumberman and has so few outside interests
that they form nothing worthy of note in this exploitation. His chief
active business is all the duties, pleasures and burdens that go with
being president of the Southern Pine Lumber Company.
the years to come Mr. Temple may be a leading oil producer or a leading
coal and lignite producer of Texas, but those of his interests are
today undeveloped and will remain undeveloped yet many years.
Mr. Temple is owner of one-third of the stock of the Garrison-Norton Lumber Company, of Pineland,
Tex., an active manufacturing lumber concern behind which is
150,000,000 feet of timber. Mr. Temple also owns personally 500,000,000
feet of yellow pine stumpage in the southern part of Sabine county, Texas, which is of the longleaf variety and runs between 10,000 and 12,000 feet to the acre.
Temple spends a great deal of his time during the fall and winter
months at Diboll; in fact, divides his time between the selling
department at Texarkana and the yellow pine milling business at Diboll. For the last eight years he has spent his
summers in the vicinity of Manhattan island. Chiefly, though, his
recreation has been his business, and he is yet actively interested in
and cognizant of all its ramifications to an extent which means much for
the business and in itself guarantees the highest character of business
success for the enterprises under his supervision.
The Active Personnel.
The officials of the Southern Pine Lumber Company are T. L. L. Temple, president, Texarkana, Ark.; William
Temple, vice president, Fulton, Ark.; L. D. Gilbert, secretary and
treasurer, Texarkana, Ark.
Watson Walker is general manager at
Diboll, Tex., and W. M. Ashford is assistant general manager. John A.
Massingill has general charge of all timber buying; Jodie Kirby is woods
superintendent; J. H. Hall is in charge of the tie department; Emmett
Massingill is team foreman at Camp 1; Major Norman is team foreman at
Charles Fredreck is superintendent of mills and
manufacture; D. E. Chipps is manager of the hardwood department; M. H.
Rodgers is hardwood saw mill foreman; the sawyers are Frank E. Greenwood
and S. M. Evans at mill No. 1 and George Ogle at mill No. 2; John
O'Hara and John Baltzer are filers at those two mills. S. E. Lingard is
shipping manager in the yellow pine end and
Moses Prewit assistant shipping manager, while A. H. Bunch is hardwood
shipping clerk. Robert Weeks is planing mill foreman, J. W. Vaughan
lumber checker, Clem Wright lumber checker, R. B. Tucker has charge of
green lumber from the saw mills, Luther Glass is manager of dry kilns
and rough sheds and C. H. Bateman has charge of pipes and pipe work.
C. L. Effinger is office manager; William Effinger is paymaster; E. H. Crossen invoice clerk.
the head of the mercantile department is W. P. Rutland and, under Mr.
Rutland, Lane Johnson is manager of store at Camp 1 and John L. Effinger
manager of store at Camp 2.
A Great Birdseye View.
considerable pleasure is printed herewith the largest freehand drawing
of a lumber plant ever printed within the covers of a trade publication.
While this drawing is freehand, that does not carry with it in any
sense that it is a licensed affair. In no other way than this could the
whole sweep of this wonderful plant at Diboll, Tex., be brought under
the eye at one observation. Those who expect to read further in this
article should study well this birdseye view, for it is a plain and open
key to all the story which follows in the accompanying text.
point of view occupied by the artist who made the drawing for this
engraving was technically at an elevation of 100 feet to the northeast
of the plant at Diboll, and if the reader will put himself in that
imaginary position he will have no difficulty in understanding the Southern Pine Lumber Company at Diboll in all its ramifications.
The Great Sheds.
us take a little walk around, beginning at the general store at the
left hand center, which is plainly marked. Remember that the long lines
of sheds to the right -- marked rough lumber sheds -- run on a line just
about north and south, and then-you will have no difficulty in
gathering the direction. On a line with the store, coming to the
northeast, is the office, so marked, and after that, dropping down
toward the regular foreground another step, is the first pictured
elevation of the fine library and rest house that will soon be erected
at Diboll, complete plans of which are further elaborated in this
article and an explanation of which will be found farther along in the
The long line of cars to the absolute left of the picture,
running from the store almost down to the foreground margin, indicates
the main line of the Houston, East & West Texas railway.
of the library is the planing mill, and all along the front of the
planing mill, clear up behind the general store as far as the dressed
lumber and molding sheds, clear down past the warehouse near the
library, past the lath sheds, directly north of these tracks and running
clear to the absolute front of the picture, are the commodious shipping
tracks of the Texas Southeastern railroad, and right near the margin is
the Texas Southeastern railroad depot. Directly above this depot are
the commodious machine shops of this road and, letting the eye follow
directly back, we strike the twelve modern and efficient kilns, and back
of them the largest yellow pine rough lumber shed in the world.
That Which Dominates.
to the foreground, and crossing over to the right, near the edge of the
pond, stand the general offices of the Texas Southeastern railroad,
from which all the business of the road is transacted Saw mill No. 1,
which is distinctively the yellow pine saw
mill, is so designated and dominates the foreground of the picture. Back
of that is the refuse burner and back of that, a hundred feet to the
right of the absolute center of the picture, is the great steel water
tower which dominates all the works of this manufacturing plant.
the extreme right of the picture, about half way from the lower right
hand corner to the upper right hand skyline, stands the latest creation
in a saw mill way, erected by the Southern Pine Lumber Company — the "No. 2" or hardwood saw mill. Dropping below the
skyline, filling two-thirds of the upper center of the picture, are the
great yellow pine and hardwood lumber yards.
All this is a fair and equitable representation in an outline way of the saw milling properties of the Southern Pine Lumber Company and has been created and printed in this way to
illustrate the great facilities of that company in the production of
lumber from all merchantable trees and the facilities it possesses to
put that lumber expeditiously upon the consuming market.
This great bird's-eye view is only a simple introduction to the feast that will follow.
would be much like attempting to irrigate the desert of Sahara with a
quart of rain water, with the hope that the desert waste would be turned
into a daisy bespangled meadow, to attempt to describe within the small
compass of the limited space allowed the vast timber possessions of the Southern Pine Lumber Company in heavily forested Texas counties.
Like many other features of this institution, the timber advantages of the Southern Pine Lumber Company are not understood or appreciated by the great lumber
consuming public, and as timber is the basic principle of all saw mill
operations, wherever situated, a cursory examination of the holdings of
this institution will be of deep interest to the intelligent reader.
An Outline Map.
the double purpose of exploiting the timber and showing the traffic
possibilities of the Texas Southeastern railroad has been especially
created and is here printed an outline map of the five counties in
southeastern Texas which contain the timber possessions of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, beginning on a line drawn near the west boundary of
Anderson county and just north of the north line of Cherokee county, and
running east through Rusk county, across to the state line, thence
south to include the whole of Trinity county.
Beginning at a
point on the Neches river a few miles south of Diboll, for a
southeastern base, dropping down to within a few miles of Groveton, in
Trinity county, for a southwestern base, and running over into the heart
of Angelina county close up to the line of the Tyler division of the
Cotton Belt road, the timber possessions of this company have a
beginning and general base which sweeps up along through the valley of
the Neches river, from Trinity and Angelina counties, into Houston,
Cherokee and Anderson counties, and broadens out again into a
northwestern base within a few miles of Palestine, Tex., and the main
line of the International & Great Northern railway, forming an
almost solid strip of timber land fifty-five miles in length with an
average breadth of four and one-half miles—truly a Commercial Barony in
the vast expanse of the Empire of Yellow Pine.
In Five Counties.
The Southern Pine Lumber Company since the beginning of its operations, in these five
counties named, in 1893, has bought and still owns in fee simple 124,653
acres of timber lands, containing short and longleaf pine timber and valuable hardwoods. It has bought also the timber on 84,668
acres of land in this district, which would make the total timber
possessions today 209,313 acres had none been cut in the meantime. There
has been removed, however, from the fee simple lands the timber from
20,000 acres, and from the lands where forest growth alone was purchased
the timber from 37,115 acres.
A close and careful statement of the actual possessions of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, as they stand today, made by John A. Massingill, expert
timber buyer in the employ of the company, shows that in the possession
of this concern are 1,150,000,000 feet of standing yellow pine,
principally of the shortleaf variety, and not less than 175,000,000
feet of hardwoods, the latter running 60 percent to oak, 30 percent to
gum and 10 percent to hickory.
Timber for Thirty Years.
the absolute night and day capacity of the mills now in operation at
Diboll, Tex., if those mills should run steadily night and day, day in
and day out, night in and night out, month in and month out, season in
and season out, stopping only for Sundays and holidays, this timber
could be turned into lumber between this writing, in November, 1907, and
July, 1937. If the reader who is fond of figuring will but take a few
minutes of time, and obtain elsewhere in this article the various single
capacities of the various plants described, he will have no difficulty
in ascertaining that the statement is true.
This part of the
story has been told with a view of impressing the reader with the
comprehensive character of this business, and yet there cannot be told,
in relating the simple lumber story, anything like the importance of the
vast resources of this territory.
But a few minutes' ride from
Diboll are many hundreds of acres of undoubted oil lands, which will not
be developed until the lumbering shall have advanced many years.
Underlying many sections of the Southern Pine Lumber Company's lands in one of the far northwestern counties are vast
fields of lignite of a high quality. Only about one mile removed from
the line of the Texas Southeastern railroad are great natural deposits
of rock which, a little later, will be opened for use as ballast and for
even more extensive commercial uses as desired.
most pointed pencil cannot figure the actual end of this operation at
Diboll in the matter of lumber production from the timber described, but
can only hope to figure the theoretical end, which will fall no one can
tell how many years short; this because the Southern Pine Lumber Company people have—without protestation—indulged in practical
forestry by leaving the unripened yet marketable trees for a second if
not a third cutting. The writer saw much of the first cut over lands and
can testify to the fact that it will be but a few more years until the
swish of the crosscut saw can be heard there again and undoubtedly with
Uniform in Quality.
The quality of the yellow pine is of a uniform high class, and the retailer who purchases the product of the Southern Pine Lumber Company may depend upon the "Neches Valley" brand for the characteristics "high quality and uniformity."
hardwoods have been manufactured just long enough at Diboll to show
that they are also of the highest Standard known to the general hardwood
trade of the world. Many photographic specimens are shown in engravings
herewith to prove the general statements made concerning the Southern Pine Lumber Company products.
THE TEXAS SOUTHEASTERN RAILROAD.
charter under which the Texas Southeastern railroad was built and is
being operated provides for a main line from Diboll, a station on the
Houston, East & West Texas railway in Angelina county, to Weches, in
Houston county. Weches is a few miles south of Palestine, where the
offices and shops of the International & Great Northern railroad are
located. Two branch lines are provided; one beginning at Blix, seven
miles northwest from Diboll, and extending ten miles northeast to
Lufkin, the county seat of Angelina county. At this point this branch
connects with the St. Louis Southwestern railway, and again with the
Houston, East & West Texas railway. The latter is a part of the Southern Pacific system. The second branch line begins at Vair, eleven miles
northwest of Diboll, and will extend south to Everett, in San Jacinto
county. This line will intersect the Missouri, Kansas & Texas
railway at or near Groveton, the county seat of Trinity county.
The Country Traversed.
The country traversed by the main line is rich in pine and hardwood timber, little of which has been cut. Practically all of that which remains standing belongs to the Southern Pine Lumber Company. In addition to the timber, the country contains fine
farming and fruit lands, and in the Neches valley are found some of the
finest cotton producing lands in the south. Adjoining this valley are
the famous vegetable and fruit lands of Jacksonville, which are only
partially developed on account of lack of railroad facilities for the
marketing of the produce, but the opening up of the country by the Texas
Southeastern railroad will give to these lines a fine outlet in every
The country traversed by the Lufkin branch is similar
to that tributary to the main line, but is more fully developed. Most of
this land is under cultivation and there remain only a few thousand
acres of standing timber, the property of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, The land along this Lufkin branch has doubled in value
since the survey was made for this line. The country to be traversed by
the Everett branch is valuable in timber and farming lands, the timber
being the property principally of the Southern Pine Lumber Company. This branch will intersect the Missouri, Kansas &
Texas railway and the Beaumont & Great Northern railroad, and the
three will ultimately form a short line from Lufkin to Houston.
miles of the main line and ten miles of the Lufkin branch are now in
operation, and in addition to this the company is operating twenty miles
of logging road spurs which are used for delivering logs from the woods
operations to the main line. The logging spurs are temporary and are
moved from place to place as fast as it is found that the timber is cut.
Economical Handling of Freight.
Texas Southeastern is being constructed so that it can handle
economically all the business offered, its ruling grade being 1 percent,
which is five-tenths of 1 percent lower than the ruling grade of any
other important railroad running into Lufkin. In the matter of curves it
is favorably located, its maximum curves being four degrees, and only
two of these are on the lines in operation.
All streams are
crossed on pile trestles, the longest being the one over the Neches
river, which is 1,834 feet in length and has 14-foot bents except over
the channel. The channel is crossed by 28-foot bents, having eight cords
8 inches by 16 inches by 28 feet. These cords are trussed by four
1-1/2-inch rods of steel, which rods are continuous across all the
28-foot bents and pass over steel plates on top of the cords, over each
cap and under a 12-inch by 12-inch by 12-foot timber, bolted to the
bottom of the cords midway of each span. These rods are kept tight by
turn-buckles in each bent and strengthen the trestle materially.
Texas Southeastern railroad is laid with 56-pound steel on 6x8-inch by
8-foot ties, spaced eighteen ties to the rail, with the entire track on
The Motive Power.
motive power of the Texas Southeastern road consists of eight
locomotives. The value of the locomotives as units of power is indicated
in the following table:
ENGINE NUMBER Tractive power ... Ton weight, without tender
1 ......... 13,000 .... 30
2 ......... 14.000 .... 33
3 ......... 16,000 .... 38
4 ......... 17,200 .... 44
5 ......... 19,200 .... 50
6 ......... 18,500 .... 42
7 ......... 19,200 .... 50
8 ......... 20,380 .... 45 -- Including tank.
company now has in service 135 cars. In addition to those in service
the company is building thirty new logging cars having 4-1/2x8-inch
journals and a capacity of 60,000 pounds each. The material for all
these cars is now in the shops and they will be in service early in
The company maintains a shop in Diboll for the purpose of
building cars and repairing the damaged rolling stock, both cars and
locomotives. The shop is equipped with the following machinery: One
engine, 10x12 inches; one 600-pound steam trip hammer, total weight of
machine 12,000 pounds; one 28-inch by 20-foot lathe machine; one 14-inch
by 8-foot lathe; one 6x20-inch back geared shaver; one bolt cutter; one
24-inch drill press; one band saw; one jig saw for cutting shafting and
piping; one fan and two blacksmith forges; one 24,000-pound rail
straightener and one 5-ton crane for handling broken cars.
The Present Business.
The business of the Texas Southeastern railroad at present consists principally in handling the logs and lumber for the Southern Pine Lumber Company's plant at Diboll. In addition to this the company has
considerable business to and from the stations on its line.
officers of the Texas Southeastern railroad are: T. L. L. Temple,
president; W. J. Raef, Diboll, Tex., vice president and traffic manager;
George Webber, Texarkana, Ark., general counsel; Watson Walker,
secretary, treasurer and general manager, and J. E. Mitchell, chief
engineer, Diboll, Tex.
THE WOODS OPERATIONS.
The woods operations of the Southern Pine Lumber Company are in charge of Jodie Kirby, woods superintendent, and a
cleaner, neater, better organized department for the cutting and
delivering of timber to the right-of-way and loading it on cars does not
exist in the yellow pine south than that about to he described.
operations revolve about two centers known as "Camp No. 1" and "Camp
No. 2." The entire operation considered as a whole is of the first grade
in every particular, hence the reader should be interested in. a
detailed statement of just how the logging of the Southern Pine Lumber Company is done.
is the usual scheme of spur tracks, running like unto tree stems from
the branches of the Texas Southeastern railroad, and the timber is taken
to the spurs from the distance of a half mile on either side and is
hauled in wagons and by slip tongue carts. The slip tongue carts are
pulled by mules and the wagons hauled by oxen, the carts working back
from the spurs about 400 yards, or about a quarter of a mile on either
side of the tracks. The oxen are used to pull the 8-wheeled wagons which
bring the logs in from the long distances. The mules bring in the long
logs with the carts and the oxen deliver the shorter logs on wagons.
The Principle of Operations.
The principle of the logging operations of the Southern Pine Lumber Company exists in the fact that the company aims to deliver a
certain amount of logs every working day in the year, rather than pile
up an immense amount of logs during the dry season to be hauled in
during the rainy season, So it is that the most accessible timber in
each cutting is left to the last. This policy also undoubtedly accounts
for the fact that the logging spurs, as well as the general traffic
lines that haul the logs, are of higher character as to railroad
construction than most logging spurs and logging railroads; this on
account of the fact that they have to be good all the time, wet or dry
season, winter or summer, so as to submit to the daily haul. In this
manner of logging each day competes with all of the others, and the
heads of the departments may be heard discussing the cost of the logging
for a single day as compared with some other particular day, rather
than making comparisons of one week against another or one month against
another. This system of logging and log operating bookkeeping should
eradicate many evils of the craft, on account chiefly of a possible
daily review of the business.
Stumps Cut Low.
It is the policy of the Southern Pine Lumber Company logging department to cut stumps just as low as they can
possibly be cut, seldom more than fourteen or fifteen inches above the
ground. Also the loggers are instructed to trim the trees to the highest
possible point, which permits even the making of a 2x4.
no exaggeration to say that these orders are being carried out in these
operations more thoroughly than this observer has been able to find in
any previous examination of logging projects. This accounts, in some
measure, for the great amount of lumber that the Southern Pine Lumber Company has been able to secure from its acreage. This policy of
avoidance of waste and looking after the small things pervades,
however, the entire business of the company, but it is especially
brought out in the logging.
Practical Forestry Methods.
A trip over all the lines of the Texas Southeastern railroad and its branches and along the spurs of the Southern Pine Lumber Company would easily convince the most skeptical that there is a
method of tree cutting that is more profitable than the "sweep clean"
methods employed by many yellow pine operators. The management of this operation asserts that all yellow pine lands are susceptible of a second cutting, with high class commercial
results a possibility, after a lapse of from twelve to fifteen years
after the first cutting.
This is shown to be true in a practical way by going through the tracts of land where the Southern Pine Lumber Company lumbered twelve and fifteen years ago and noting their
condition. Inside of the next three years any acre of land cut by this
concern twelve years ago will produce from 3,000 to 5,000 feet of
merchantable yellow pine timber. Also there
is considerable evidence that enough unripened trees can then be left to
make at some future day a third cutting possible.
The Logging Equipment.
In the employ of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, in its woods operations, are altogether about 175 men,
100 of whom live at Camp No, 2, about seventeen miles from Diboll. At
Camp No. 2 are seventy-five portable houses, built in the shape of large
freight ears, fitted with windows, mounted on upright posts, well
guarded against heat and cold, where these men and their families live.
The water supply of Camp No. 2 comes from surface wells. The camp is
built on a gentle rise of ground where sanitary conditions are perfect,
and the health of the little community is most excellent.
the logging at Camp No. 2 in use are four carts, nine wagons, forty-two
mules and sixteen oxen. Six miles from Camp No. 2 a stationary boom log
loader is in commission, operated by six men, handling 125,000 feet of
At Camp No. 1, located about fifteen miles from
Diboll, seventy five men do the work; they live with their families in
fifty-four car houses. The water supply is hauled to this camp from the
Neches river. Sanitary conditions are very good and the people are
comfortable and healthy.
Twenty mules and eighty oxen manipulate
ten wagons and four slip tongue carts at Camp No. 1, and the logs are
loaded on cars by two loaders, one of which has a swing boom and the
other a stationary boom. The loaders are each operated by six men, one
handling hardwoods and the other pine, the capacity of each being 125,000 feet daily.
each of these camps is a general store, a branch of the store at
Diboll, from which the employees are furnished at a reasonable rate with
all the necessities of life.
Logging the Year Bound.
Logs are brought in to the log ponds of the Southern Pine Lumber Company at Diboll and if they be pine they are dumped into either log pond No. 1 or No. 2. The hardwood, logs
are of course cut in the woods as they are found interspersed with the pine,
but are loaded on separate cars, and if possible on separate trains.
However that may be, the hardwood logs are handled into the hardwood
mill in train loads, and actually from the trains, a steam device having
been arranged near the haul-up end of the hardwood mill which, by means
of a wire cable working over a drum, pulls the train along as it is
unloaded, delivering one car at a time to the log ramp, standing so that
the logs are rolled from the cars parallel with the haul-up chain. The
logs go down an incline to the chain and are hauled directly up into the
hardwood mill without having been delivered in either pond.
is a definite schedule for the running or the trains to the mill from
the woods by which is easily delivered the entire capacity of the mills,
with a considerable overplus, figuring the mills to run day and night.
It is never the policy of the Southern Pine Lumber Company to keep an extraordinary supply of logs along the
right-of-way in the woods; the normal log supply is at all times between
3,000,000 and 4,000,000 feet of timber, ready for loading on the cars.
THE RAILWAY TIE DEPARTMENT.
some years after the inception of the Texas Southeastern railroad the
ties used In the construction of the road were cut under the supervision
of the management of the railroad, and but little was thought of making
a commercial department for the manufacture of ties for general
consumption. The general demand, however, for railway ties, and the
policy of the company to utilize all of its timber and lumber resources,
compelled the opening of a regular tie department. It assumed
formidable proportions during the spring of 1907 and since that period a
varying number of tie makers have been kept at work on the shorter
lived spurs of the company, cutting into ties all the hardwoods not
available for hardwood lumber.
The Texas Southeastern railroad
has used a large amount of the tie product in its operations during
1907. However, the accumulation of ties on the various lines of the road
in shape for early shipment amounted late in November of last year to
20,000, a few gum but mostly of the various grades of tie making oak.
About sixty men are employed in the tie making department.
It has been learned that it is the policy of the Southern Pine Lumber Company to keep from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 feet of logs on the
ramps in the woods rather than to store there any larger amount of logs
at any time, and to keep its logging crews busy working day in and day
out the year round rather than to make a rush of logging in the summer
months, against the times when the rains descend. It is also the policy
of the company to bring these logs in from day to day and to keep the
fresh logs in the pond, rather than to cover the whole surface of the
pond at all times with the logs, and thus reduce to a minimum the
expense of picking up "sinkers."
Under no circumstances does the
company lack storage room, for it could at all times keep on hand in its
commodious ponds many more millions of feet of logs than it finds
necessary to keep.
Even the creation of the log ponds at Diboll
has an evolution that is interesting. The first pond was created there
in 1894 and did not cover more than an area of an acre and a half. In
1897 the pond was enlarged to three acres in size and since that time
the embankment of the pond has been raised about three feet. This is
called "pond No. 1." This pond will hold about 1,000,000 feet of logs
and is fed by a small stream. It is used only for storage and no water
is pumped from it for use at the plant. This is the pond that travelers
see from the west windows of any Houston, East & West Texas train in
"Pond No. 2", one-half of which is also shown in
the birdseye view, was built in 1902, largely for the purpose of
increasing the water supply. It lies to the west of the other pond; it
will hold about 300,000 feet of logs. Yellow pine logs are dumped into this pond direct and the hardwood logs are brought
around the western boundary, but are not put into the water.
ponds are supplied largely by rains and by the streams of water that
empty into them. There is also an arrangement whereby water is pumped
from Ryan's lake.
A smaller storage pond west of "pond No. 2" is
used largely as a reservoir. These three ponds are connected at
THE SAW MILLS.
The saw mills of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, two in number, are both shown in a blrdseye view
referred to specifically under another heading. Mill No. 1,
distinctively and exclusively a yellow pine saw mill, is the larger of the two, as will be seen by the particular description of the plant.
Mill No. 2, the latest achievement in saw mill building by this company, is the mill in which yellow pine and hardwood lumber are both manufactured. It is one of the highest types of single band mill construction.
Saw Mill No. 1.
saw mill was built in 1903, stands in its general direction north and
south and is contained in a building two and a half stories in hight and
156 by 170 feet in area. The frame of the lower floor is of 14x14 stuff
and the lower story is 16 feet in the clear. On this ground floor the
line shaft, 170 feet long, runs from 5-7/8 to 2-15/16 inches in
diameter. There are also the two steam niggers and a mechanical hog will
be installed for giving the edgings a closer mastication.
The second floor in its framing is of 12x12 and is 12 feet in the clear.
the saw floor is a band mill with a 9-foot wheel and a 3-block
carriage, propelled by a 12-inch shotgun feed, and the log deck is
fitted with all appurtenances for handling lumber.
Here also is a
band mill fitted with a 36-foot carriage, two head blocks and a 10-inch
shotgun feed. This is technically known as the short side of the mill.
The logs are hauled up into the mill over an endless chain and the
refuse is carried directly west of the mill to a burner thirty-two feet
in diameter, shown in the birdseye view. This is a water jacket burner,
the jacket running 70 feet high. The burner itself is 100 feet high.
Returning to the saw floor of mill No. 1 we find an 8-saw double edger, a 28-foot trimmer and an 8-saw slasher.
On the southwest corner of saw mill No. 1 is a lath mill in an annex 24x60 feet in area containing appropriate lath machinery.
lumber from the saw mill is dumped from the sorting chains, which run
to the east, and is graded as to common lumber and loaded on 2-wheeled
carts. An arrangement is now being put in place in the shape of a runway
to the southeast, over which the common lumber will be trundled to the
yards or to the dry kilns as desired, it now being the plan of the
company to dry all its common lumber in the great amount of modernly
built kiln space now being put into use.
The timbers will be
handled from this mill by a steam crane run by a small engine located
near the tail of the mill, convenient to the timber dock, upon which all
the timbers are dumped, being run as they are over live rollers to the
dock directly from the saws.
Adjacent to this saw mill No. 1 on
the east side of the mill are two boiler houses, one the boiler house
proper for the mill, and another by the side of it has recently been
erected. In the first named boiler house are four 66-inch by 16-foot
boilers, which furnish the power for saw mill No. 1. Also in this boiler
house — which is also engine house for saw mill No. 1—is a 4-inch
suction and 3-inch discharge pump. The saw mill engine proper is in
boiler house No. 1 and is a 24x48 Corliss. Another engine connected with
saw mill No. 1 is an 8x8 affair in the filing room, for running the
complete filing room machinery.
The day and night capacity of saw
mill No. 1 is 240,000 feet, or 65,000,000 feet annually, lumber scale;
65,000 daily is the capacity of the lath mill.
Saw Mill No. 2.
mill No. 2, otherwise known as the hardwood mill, referred to in the
introduction as a modern band mill and as the latest mill built by the Southern Pine Lumber Company, was begun in December, 1906, and began running in April, 1907.
foundation is of concrete capped with cast iron plates on top of the
piers, the posts downstairs are 14x14 in size and the hight of the lower
story is 16 feet in the clear, making a splendid, well lighted and
readily accessible repository for all of the under saw floor machinery
not often seen in saw mill manufacture. The engine foundations are of
brick and concrete, imbedded three feet in the ground. The mill
literally runs without a tremor and is as steady as a mountain of
settled habits. The upper story is in the frame 12x12 and is 12 feet in
the clear. The nigger is installed downstairs with the shaftings,
boxings and pulleys.
On the saw floor is a band saw mill with a
3-block carriage, steam trip and a 12-inch shotgun feed. The logs are
handled to this carriage by a kicker and trip.
In an annex is a
full complement of lath machinery, where until recently five-eighths
lath were made. In that department is also a wood saw, so that the offal
from the mill can be cut either into lath or into wood.
lumber from this mill is handled by carrying chains, the common lumber
either going to the yard or being transferred by an incline arrangement
directly to the dry kilns several hundred feet to the east.
machinery described above is contained in a building 40x155 feet in
area. The line shaft downstairs is 4-7/8 inches at one end, tapering to
2-15/16 inches, and is 158 feet in length.
The lath mill annex is
28x60 feet in area and has a line shaft 3-7/16 inches in diameter, 50
feet long. The daily capacity of saw mill No. 2 in day run is in yellow pine 60,000 feet and in hardwoods 40,000 feet. The day and night capacity in yellow pine is 120,000 feet. Hardwoods have not been cut at night.
power house of this plant is located to the east of the mill and a high
brick wall intervenes between the boiler house and the mill proper for
fire protection. In this power house are three 66-inch by 16-foot
boilers, steamboat setting, and a 4-inch suction and 3-inch discharge
pump and an engine of the standard Corliss variety, 20x42 inches. The
power house is of galvanized iron.
Saw mill No. 2 has a fine
timber dock to which the timbers manufactured are handled by live rolls,
and from the dock to the ears by a steam crane. This crane is a
duplicate of the one which is installed and in use at saw mill No. 1 for
HANDLING THE LUMBER.
The handling of the lumber at the plant of the Southern Pine Lumber Company at Diboll, Tex., is an interesting proposition. Just now
all the lumber is being handled by mule and hand dollies. However,
several contrivances are being put in place to accomplish in a transfer
way some of the things that could not be done so cheaply by hand.
time will come soon — certainly within the next ninety days—when the
lumber from both mills will be arranged for the kilns and delivered to
the kiln car platforms by transfer cars over tracks run at right angles
to the yard alleys, built with such grades that cars will almost be
handled by gravity and returned in the same way. A draw bridge in this
track is being erected, to be elevated and lowered by steam, which will
permit the buggies of No. 3 stock to pass to the yards.
room, which can easily be extended, now exists at Diboll in which
25,000,000 feet of lumber could be piled and in which is now piled at
least 15,000,000 feet of yellow pine of
assorted sizes. There is in hardwood 2,000,000 feet divided as follows:
350,000 feet inch gum, 100,000 feet 1-1/2-inch gum, 50,000 feet 2-inch
gum, 1,200,000 feet inch plain sawed white oak, 100,000 feet 1-1/2-inch
plain white oak, 100,000 feet 2-inch oak, 100,000 feet inch quarter
All of the lumber put into the yards is piled in low
piles. The hardwood piles are six feet wide. Fifty dollies are used in
handling the heavy movement of lumber to the yards from both mills.
About the Great Sheds.
sheds are undoubtedly the most commodious in Texas or in the south or
southwest. There is a great shed for rough common lumber, which looks in
the birdseye view like three sheds, as it has three roofs. It is,
however, as to its floor, one great shed, 150 feet wide and 500 feet
long. This shed begins at a point 200 feet south of the kilns and runs
south 500 feet, as indicated in the birdseye view. This shed will hold,
with the lumber piled so all is accessible, just about 5,000,000 feet,
figuring that the demand for lengths, widths and sizes follows along
Just east of the shed another for clear rough lumber, 52 by 350 feet in area, will hold at least 1,500,000 feet of lumber.
The Men in Service.
service are 100 men who handle the lumber to and from the planing mill.
Fifty-six of these men handle the lumber through the planing mill and
forty-four men handle it from the planing mill to the cars, or re-shed
The lumber will be transferred as desired from the sheds to
the planing mill, or direct to cars. Southeast of the rough sheds is a
shed for manufactured lumber, SO by 450 feet in area, where are stored
between 2,500,000 and 3,000,000 feet of lumber. South of that shed is a
molding shed, 60 by 96 feet, where moldings, casing, base, drop and
bevel siding are stored, and which will hold about 1,000,000 lineal feet
of molding and 100,000 feet of the other stuff mentioned.
to the common lumber again, the No. 1 common will go from the kilns to
the machine and be dressed to standard of Yellow Pine Manufacturers' Association grades and be again regraded.
Timber and Good Lumber.
timbers from both mills are handled to a dock at the south of each mill
by live rolls and are picked up by steam cranes, which enables three
men to load a car of timbers each hour.
The good lumber is
stacked at each mill and transferred to the dry kilns, dried and. loaded
directly on the cars, if wanted in the rough, put through the planing
mill if wanted dressed, or stored in the appropriate rough shed. The 6,
8, 10 and 12-inch good lumber is stacked in the rough shed usually and
brought from that shed to the machines to be worked into finish, drop
siding, bevel siding, moldings etc. Any stock falling from the upper
grades is worked into drop siding and ceiling and loaded into cars or
placed in the dressed lumber shed, as desired.
Actually in lumber shipping service at the yellow pine end of the business are forty-four men, trained, picked negro help, who
use in doing the work fifty hand dollies or trucks. The loading dock
for yellow pine is 24. feet wide and 1,000
long. The lumber is all weighed on track scales, so the management knows
exactly how much freight is owing on every car of lumber and is in.
fine position to contest overcharges.
In the hardwood shipping
department fourteen men are used, eight handling the lumber from the
stacks and six loading it into the cars. The timbers are loaded right at
the saw mill, as previously stated, with the use of a special
sidetrack. The hardwood is all loaded from the shipping dock on the west
side of the hardwood mill, where there is dock room and track room for
ten cars. The switching facilities are as good as those from the yellow pine lumber docks.
THE WONDERFUL DRYING CAPACITY.
lumber producing concern in the United States is better fitted for
drying its product, and so large a percent of its product in proportion
to its output, than the Southern Pine Lumber Company. In no other department of this business have the steps
of evolution left deeper impress than in that of the preparation of the
lumber for market in the matter of its drying.
On page 90 of this
article 90 percent of the page space shows views of the superior dry
kilns of various patterns, twelve rooms which will hold 544,400 feet of
lumber of all sorts on an average. Beginning about the time this article
will go to press, all of the common as well as the clear lumber at
Diboll will be subjected to rigid kiln drying.
The retail trade, of the country may always depend upon it that anything which the Southern Pine Lumber Company ships to them will be dry, made from the famous "Neches Valley Pine" and therefore uniform in quality. These standards will be rigidly maintained.
Four years ago the company built south of the yellow pine mill a nest of six kilns Which have proven most effective and
altogether satisfactory in every particular. Each one of the rooms of
these first kilns is 20 by 125 feet in area, of brick, with side walls
17 inches thick and the inside walls 13 inches, the whole capped with a
fire wall 18 inches high. There are three miles of pipe in each room.
These kilns, of course, are run night and day and all the No. 1 and No. 2 common will be dried therein.
first named rooms will hold altogether 324,000 feet of lumber at a time
and will dry common lumber In forty-eight hours and turn out clear
lumber fully dried in from sixty to seventy-two hours.
kilns to the west of the first named and of a new pattern have just been
finished, the stalls being six in number. Each stall is ten feet
between the door posts and seventy feet in the clear in length, and each
will hold four trucks of lumber averaging 5,000 feet to the truck, or a
constant capacity of 20,000 feet to the stall and 120,000 feet to the
six kilns. These kilns are guaranteed to dry perfectly any kind of
lumber in twenty-four hours' time.
The outside walls of the last
named kilns are 18 inches thick, of solid brick, and the inside walls 13
inches thick, coated with cement. The stalls are sheeted with 4-inch
yellow pine flooring, with an empty air
compartment of 8 inches between the sheeting and the brick wall. At the
top of the wall separating each stall is a moisture escape the full
length of the wall, which forms the cooling apparatus of the kiln.
kilns in each room are piped with over 17,500 feet of inch piping,
these pipes being filled with steam from a main feed pipe in each stall.
There is a decline of 18 inches in the floor of these kilns between the
front and rear, so that the downhill roll will facilitate the motion on
steel rails of the heavy lumber trucks. This declining track runs from
the rear of the kilns to the lumber sheds. These last named kilns will
handle the clear lumber in yellow pine from both of the mills and were put into commission January 15, 1908.
steam for both sets of kilns is furnished from the dry kiln boiler
house 200 feet northeast of the kilns. The boilers in this house are
four, 72 inches in diameter by 18 feet long, steamboat setting.
DRESSING THE LUMBER.
planing mill at Diboll is a model and is one of the best arrangements
of any installed in the south. This mill contains one 8x30 sizer, one
8x18 sizer, four 15-inch No. 2 combination matchers, six 9-inch
matchers, one 10-inch outside molder, one 15-inch inside molder, six
swing cutoff saws and two resaws. The mill also contains. two edgers,
one lath machine and two blowers, one double 50-inch and one double
The line shaft in this planing mill, 302 feet long, runs
from 5-7/16 to 2-15/16 inches in diameter, and is equipped with self
In the south end of the planing mill in a filing
room 14x50 feet in area is kept a full stock of molding bits, casing and
base knives, drop siding knives etc., for almost all patterns in the
The planing mill building in 252 by 80 feet in
area. This mill employs forty-three persons and it is considered to have
a capacity of 275,000 feet average run of lumber a day.
The Power Plant.
boiler house of this planing mill is north of the north end of the
building and is 50 by 60 feet in area. It contains all boilers and
engines and a 10 by 18 brick shaving vault, for use of fuel for planing
mill only. There is a self feed system for feeding the fire for the
boilers with this fuel. This house is sided with iron, but the shaving
house is of brick and is under the roof of the boiler house proper.
power is generated for the planing mill by three boilers each 60 inches
in diameter and 16 feet long. The planing mill engine is a Corliss, 24
by 48, 1900 model, and a particularly fine engine.
The Blowpipe System.
are two blowers to do the work, a double 50-inch and a double 70-inch.
The former takes the shavings from eight machines and discharges them
into a separator on top of the planing mill, which drops the shavings
into the double 70-inch blower. The double 70 picks up the shavings from
ten other machines and discharges from the double 50-inch, and what it
picks up, through a pipe 36 inches in diameter, to the engine room of
the planing mill. At this point a 17-inch pipe leads out to the
separator to supply fuel for the furnace of the planing mill.
that point to the fuel, house, 750 feet distant, is a pipe, 32 inches
in diameter, which carries all the shavings through to the fuel house.
At the starting point of this pipe is a positive valve which, when
thrown to the right direction, puts all the shavings into another
32-inch pipe, which runs 900 feet to a separator that drops the shavings
into the great refuse burner west of the yellow pine saw mill. When the fuel house is filled to its capacity the switch is thrown and all the overplus shavings go to the burner.
ELECTRIC LIGHTS AND TELEPHONES.
dynamos now in use produce the electric lights for the plant and for
the town of Diboll These machines are located in the new dry kiln boiler
house. Until two years ago in use here was a small machine of 20
kilowatts, but two years ago a dynamo of 35 kilowatts was placed in the
old dry kiln boilerhouse. To this electric light capacity has just been
added a new 50-kilowatt machine, and thus it is that the electric power
for use of the plant and the town has been increased 75 percent within
the last two years.
switchboard is a Whitney. There are installed about 10,000 feet of main
line wiring in the shape of leads throughout the plant and town, and at
least 10,000 of similar wiring are in the different buildings.
plants, planing mill, both yards and twenty-seven houses are lighted.
In use are fifteen 25-eandle power lamps, 630 16-candle power lamps and
twenty-eight are lights.
The engine which runs the plant is 13x12
in size, 275 revolutions, 125 horsepower, and obtains its steam power
for the boilers in the same house. The current is 220 volts direct.
The Telephone System.
thirty miles of telephone line are in commission, and installed are
eight receivers, one in the mill office, one in the railroad office, one
in the Diboll store, one at the steam shovel now in operation, one for
use at the bridge gang camp, one at each of the woods camps, and one at
Vair, The line is really a party line connected with the town of Lufkin,
and through Lufkin with the Southwestern Telephone & Telegraph
Company lines throughout the southwest. Thus no portion of the
operations of the Southern Pine Lumber Company is in any sense isolated, for one can talk from any one
of the stations mentioned to Texarkana, Houston or anywhere else in the
southwest where telephone communication is possible.
The plant of the Southern Pine Lumber Company and the town of Diboll are abundantly protected from
conflagration by a system vastly more commensurate with conditions than
the length of this inventory of its features will show.
two pumps of precisely the same size and character, one located near
mill No, 1 and the other at the northwest corner of mill No. 2. These
pumps in dimension are 16x10x16.
Of piping for the conveyance of
water to all parts of the plant there is laid and in commission 400 feet
of 10-inch pipe, 700 feet of 7-inch, 1,100 feet of 6-inch, 1,300 feet
of 4-inch, 800 feet of 3-inch and 1,100 feet of 2-inch pipe. There are
all told forty-six 2-inch and thirty-eight 2-1/2-inch hydrants, 125
buckets and 125 barrels, the barrels filled with water for immediate
use. The hose in use consists of 1,750 feet of 2-1/2-inch and 1,800 feet
of 2-inch. A magnificent steel water tank holding 40,000 gallons,
standing 131 feet over all, has just been erected, which can be seen
dominating the great birdseye view referred to elsewhere.
pumps are connected with the tank, as also are all the hydrants, and,
under steam at all times, can be started at a moment's notice. Water is
secured from ponds No. 2 and 3, the pump at the yellow pine mill working from No. 2 and the pump at the hardwood mill drawing from No. 3.
THE MERCANTILE DEPARTMENT.
Nothing better illustrates the growth of a yellow pine lumber company than the growth of its mercantile department, run for
the accommodation and benefit of its employees. A better organization of
general stores it has not been this writer's privilege to examine than
the main and two subsidiary stores of the Southern Pine Lumber Company.
first store of the company consisted of a building 20x30 feet in size,
with an 8x30 foot annex for groceries, making, all told, 840 feet of
floor space. That store was erected and began business in 1894. It was
sufficient until 1898, when another building was erected, 36x66 feet in
area, and as the old store was used for a warehouse the floor space was
increased to 3,226 square feet. In 1901 that store was destroyed by fire
and another one was built of the same size. In 1902 another room, 36x36
feet, was added, making the floor space 5,612 feet in area. In 1907 a
second story, 66x72 feet, was put over both the buildings as they stood,
and the floor space was increased to 10,384 square feet of area, adding
to which the square feet of area of the drug store, which is 30x50 feet
in size, and the area of the two stores in the woods, the present total
area of floor space is 13,804 feet.
The general store at Diboll
is contained in the ground floor rooms, one room of 36x66 being the
store proper and the other room, of the same size, being the storage
room. The second floor, 66x72 feet, is used for furniture and mens
In 1896 a branch store was erected in Camp No.
1, in a building 20x30 feet, which was rebuilt in 1900, covering 30x50
feet, and is now contained in two cars, 12x80 feet. In 1906 a store was
established at Camp No. 2, also in two car houses.
manager, W. P. Rutland, twelve persons are employed to take care of the
general store and the drug store. In 1902 these stores did a business of
$108,000; in 1903, $128,000; in 1904, $139,000; in 1905, $150,000; in
1906, $190,000, and estimating the last six weeks on the basis of the
previous ten and a half months, the year 1907 will show a total business
The Diboll store alone sold $40,000 worth of goods
in October. This store carries $20,000 stock; the drug store carries
$2,500 of stock; the store at Camp No. 1, $2,500; the store at Camp No.
The fair and effective manner in which these stores
are managed is exemplified by the fact that they draw country trade not
only from Angelina county but from Trinity and Polk counties as well,
and it is no uncommon thing for farmers to drive in thirty miles to do
business at the great mercantile emporium at Diboll.
THE SELLING END.
but about one-half of 1 percent of the product of the mills at Diboll
is sold through the selling office at Texarkana. There six commodious
rooms are occupied by the various persons who are needed in an office
way to do the work.
The business of the Southern Pine Lumber Company is distributed in the following grand divisions of the
country: Oklahoma, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Indiana, Illinois, Texas,
Iowa, Michigan, Ohio, Colorado, Wisconsin. The relative amount of
business done in each of these states is indicated by the order in which
the above list runs.
Four men are constantly employed on the
road to represent the company in the sale of lumber. These with their
headquarters are: H. W. Walker, Oklahoma City, Okla.; A. M. Hill, St,
Louis, Mo.; W. H. Lewis, Lincoln, Neb.; J. S. Prestridge, Indianapolis.
The entire selling end of the business is in the hands of L. D. Gilbert, secretary and treasurer of the Southern Pine Lumber Company. Through information compiled by Mr. Gilbert a tabular
statement of the amount of business done by this institution in carload
lots from 1894 to 1907, inclusive, is presented:
YEAR ............... Cars
1894 ............... 196
1895 ............... 695
1896 ............... 603
1897 ............... 907
1898 ............... 922
1899 ............... 1,309
1900 ............... 975
1901 ............... 1,327
1902 ............... 1,404
1903 ............... 1,598
1904 ............... 2,332
1905 ............... 2,171
1906 ............... 3,060
1907 ............... 3,710
product of the new mill cannot rightly be said to be yet put upon the
market, and so it is no exaggerated prophecy to expect that during the
future life of the Southern Pine Lumber Company its sales should never fall below 125,000,000 feet
annually. Had the company been able to secure the necessary cars in
which to ship lumber the sales last year would not have fallen short of
The Southern Pine Lumber Company's office at Texarkana also handles a large amount of the product of the Garrison-Norton Lumber Company, at Pine-land,
Tex., but outside of that one mill it does not seek the product of any
other mill, believing, and correctly, that by handling "Neches Valley Pine"
manufactured under its own direction, thereby securing uniformity not
only of manufacture but of quality, it does a greater amount of business
and is more successful in pleasing and thereby holding its
customers—the highest two ambitions attainable in the sale of lumber.
FOR THE PUBLIC GOOD.
times of exclusive day run of the mills at Diboll, which is the
temporary condition of affairs just now, in January, 1908, the payroll
contains 710 names. When demand is heavy, as in the last five years, 880
men are employed in all the ramifications of the Southern Pine Lumber Company's business. These employees are now divided about as
follows: In the logging, 175; in timber affairs, 2; on the railroad,
115; log storage, 6; hardwood mill, 15; yellow pine mill, 28; planing mill, 43; handling lumber to planing mill, 56;
handling lumber from planing mill, 44; dry kilns, 11; yarding yellow pine lumber, 57; yarding hardwood lumber, 28; construction, 25; machine
shops, 15; general stores, 12; miscellaneous—electricians, watchmen
etc.—6; Texarkana selling department, 11.
This employment of
common and skilled labor brings together, with Diboll for its center, a
population directly interested in these affairs of not less than 2,500
persons at any time. Often as many as 3,200 persons are directly
connected with and dependent upon these operations.
Physical and Intellectual Comfort.
public good—the physical and intellectual comfort, of these people—has
become a problem to be worked out by the company management, which is
being done on broad and. philanthropic lines that must demand
explanation and exploitation in any well balanced account of the
operations of the Southern Pine Lumber Company.
South of the town of Diboll or, rather, in the residence section, is a neat little yellow pine church, two stories in hight, on the lower floor of which services are
held by the Baptists, the Methodists and one other denomination, and in
which audience room occur at present most of the public gatherings not
of a secret society nature that are held in Diboll. On the upper floor
of this building is a secret society chamber in which the Odd Fellows
and the Woodmen of the World hold regular convocations.
In the residence of Frank Farrington each Sunday morning at 10 o'clock Christian Science services are held.
has been finished, at Diboll a finely fitted up Knights of Pythias
"Castle Hall," the upper floor of which will be used for meetings of
local lodge No. 304, the lower floor of which will contain a stage and
be utilized for lectures, electric theaters etc. This building was
dedicated November 15, 1907.
A Women's Club.
Diboll is an organization known as the Women's Literary Club, organized
more than a year ago, which meets fortnightly at the residences of the
various members and has been instituted for the purpose of raising the
standard of the literature read by Diboll citizens. It has done much for
society entertainment in the town. The first annual dinner of the
Women's Literary Club was held recently at the residence of Charles
Fredreck, and a banquet was provided, which, in its substantial
character and in the frills and furbelows that go with banquets, would
have done credit to any city in Texas.
An Athletic Society.
younger men in the employ of the company at Diboll who have
semiexecutive positions such as office work and the various positions
that are given out to young men of quality who desire to learn the
lumber business have a well organized athletic society which devotes
much of its holidays and spare time to baseball and tennis. Pictures of
the ball club and of the tennis court are printed in this article,
showing the character of the recreations, amusements and sports indulged
in by the very superior class of persons who live in the saw mill town.
The general health of the employees of the Southern Pine Lumber Company is guarded in a medical way by the usual methods of the
saw mill people of the south and southwest. Two physicians are employed,
Dr. W. S. Pedigo and Dr. C. S. Lane, who cater to the requirements of
employees on payment of the usual fee for that purpose.
A Dairy and Poultry Farm.
east of Diboll, on a line of spur track to be erected for that purpose,
will soon be established a high class commercial poultry farm and
dairy, primarily to cater to the wants of the people of Diboll.
farm will occupy 200 acres and upon it will be erected all the
necessary barns and sheds. The dairy will be begun by the purchase and
installation of fifty Jerseys cows, and a thousand chickens will be
secured from the Lakeside Dairy Farm, owned and operated by T. L. L.
Temple, near Texarkana. Ark. The citizens of Diboll will be served first
from these resources.
During the present year an ice plant and
cold storage plant will be erected at Diboll, During the summer months
ice is shipped to Diboll in carload lots from Lufkin, one carload every
A Magnificent Library Building.
crowning glory of Diboll will soon be a magnificent library building,
which is indicated herewith in a birdseye view of Diboll and its
vicinity made from a wash drawing from the plans of Civil Engineer, J.
The idea of a library was suggested by T. L. L. Temple, president of the Southern Pine Lumber Company, so that the officers and employees and their families
will have a comfortable place in which to spend their evenings socially
and educationally. The plans for the building provide for a 2-story
frame, 48x80 feet in size, the first floor of which will be the main
gathering hall or audience room, 26x48 feet in size, and a billiard and
pool room, 16x32, a cloak room and a finely furnished and equipped suite
of bath rooms.
The main hall, the billiard room and the stairway
will be finished entirely in red gum manufactured by the hardwood mill,
of the Southern Pine Lumber Company. The lumber will be finished and dressed in the big planing mill.
second story will contain one main hall 11x14 feet, one hall 8x48 feet,
two rooms 16x18 feet each, four rooms 16x16 feet and a bath room 10x16.
These rooms will be occupied by the unmarried officers of the Southern Pine Lumber Company at Diboll. They will be suitably furnished to make splendid living rooms for the young men.
exterior of the building will be as attractive as the products of the
great mill plant can make it, On the ground floor wide verandas will
extend along the front and two sides of the building. On the second
floor will be verandas on two sides of the building and a portico 12x16
feet in front.
Private and Public Schools.
first public school of Diboll was organized with the erection of the
first saw mill and was conducted in a building west of the lumber yard,
which has since been torn down. In 1899 the present building south of
the town was erected, and in 1906 an addition of one room was built to
accommodate the first and second grades. Since 1900 the school
attendance (then about seventy-five) has increased to 150, which
reflects the total school enumeration of 203 white children of school
age in the district.
The present building is 30x60 feet, one
story high, and contains three rooms. Three teachers are employed—Prof.
W. A. O'Quinn, M. S., principal, who is a graduate of Sam Houston Normal
School, Huntsville, Tex.; W. A. Wofford, of Athens, Tex., first
assistant; Mrs. Robert Kirby, second assistant, in charge of first and
second grades. Until 1905 two teachers were employed. The schools are
open for seven months each year, beginning September 30.
A. O'Quinn since coming to the school last year has carried out the
graded system, which was only in partial operation heretofore. This has
proven very satisfactory and has resulted in rapid advancement of his
The present building is entirely inadequate for the needs
of the school and will be replaced this year by new and much larger
buildings; for these a different location will be selected later. The
necessity for improvement has already compelled the purchase of new
modern desks and seats, which are now being installed. These
improvements were bought by private subscription and through funds
raised by entertainments given by the Ladies' Improvement Society of
Diboll. The school district consists of sixteen square miles and
contains only the white and colored schools of Diboll.
class select or private school convenes each school day in the audience
room of the union church previously mentioned. This school has as
principal and only teacher and promoter, Mrs. A. H. Bunch, the talented
wife of the hardwood shipping clerk at Diboll.
The colored school
located southwest of the plant, in the negro quarters, has an
attendance of about forty pupils under the tutorship of J. W, Hogg.
AND IN THE LAST PLACE.
And now, Mr. Reader, having read all the story of the evolution of the Southern Pine Lumber Company up to and including the last paragraph of the division
above, it will not be by any means a bad idea to "sum up" as the lawyers
do; in other words, to find out in a few brief paragraphs or to discuss
with yourself just what you have learned and how you have been
entertained by this illustrated article. If you are a lumberman you have
been well entertained by the magnificent pictures produced by the skill
of the photographer and the skill of the engraver and the skill of the
printer and pressman, but more particularly on account of the subjects
which were photographed in order to obtain the magnificent accompanying
In an illustrative way you have seen altogether
the most dignified and startling title page that has been given to a
story of this character; you have learned of the extensive building
operations that were necessary to produce general traffic lines to be
used largely for carrying logs to be eaten up by the glimmering saws at
Diboll; have seen a map of the five counties of Angelina, Houston,
Anderson, Nacogdoches and Trinity which indicates at a glance the
widespread character of these operations; have seen on one page pictures
of the eight magnificent locomotives that are used by the Texas
Southeastern railroad largely in hauling logs to the mills at Diboll and
hauling lumber away from those mills; have seen pictures of groups of
great draft horses and mules in the woods, and have seen pictures of the
steam skidders at work. Particularly and especially you have seen the
largest free hand birdseye view of a single saw mill operation ever
printed in a lumber trade newspaper in the history of the printing of
lumber trade newspapers and in the history of the building of saw mills
in the United States. Following this birdseye view referred to you have
seen the pictures of long bodied shortleaf "Neches Valley pine" standing in the woods, the same kind of pine stretched as far as the eye can reach along log ramps in the woods, and carloads of these in the various parts of the woods operations; two panoramic views on one
page showing a picture, and in each case from a different viewpoint, of
the two mills of the Southern Pine Lumber Company at Diboll; have seen, typical train loads remarkable hardwood timber standing particularly you have seen pictures yellow pine saw mill and a great hardwood saw mill practically standing side by
side in the same proposition; you have seen pictures of the interiors of
those saw mills—and especially you have seen pictures of actual log
decks, something not before shown in an article of this sort. You have
found a particular picture— "A Sunset View Over the Diboll" which for artistic beauty high piles, well kept alleys, trains of cars loader with "Neches Valley soft pine"
lumber going into market, fire extinguishing equipment which protects
all these buildings, and such pictures of sheds and the like as have not
been before shown to the readers of this publication—but nowhere in
this entire article on the interior of the paper have you run across an
illustrative fact which is greater than the cold type facts contained in
the much condensed and comparatively meager text which accompanies
Having read the text of this article, of
course, you. already know that it was created for more purposes than
simply as a frame for the illustrations, and now at the very end of the
story when you sum up the things of importance in this text you have
found the text so important that it is well, nigh impossible to divest
it of what might be called verbiage and reduce it to a few bare facts.
To you stands out from the story the main idea that you have made a
discovery---that the Southern Pine Lumber Company is a much more vast and a much more important proposition than you ever suspected it to be.
Even some of the most intimate friends of T. L. L. Temple have been astonished at the magnitude of the operations of the Southern Pine Lumber Company as depicted by the glimpses they have had of the
pictures and some of the information from the text of this article as
preparations for the article were going on in this office.
To the retail lumber dealers of the entire country the Southern Pine Lumber Company has been an institution which was prompt in its
deliveries, perfect in its manufacture and well rated by all the
commercial agencies. But you have now learned from this text, Mr.
Reader, that the Southern Pine Lumber Company is a lumber producing concern of the very first
magnitude; that its operations support over thirty-six hundred people;
that over eight hundred persons are employed by it in ordinary normal
times; that with the present ownership of timberland, such land owned T.
L. L. Temple personally and such land as is to be acquired, the Southern Pine Lumber Company will before its final closing down as a lumber
manufacturing institution handle over two billions of feet of timber to
the saw's edge.